İsmail Lütfi Çakan, PhD The Hadith Hadith and the Classification of Hadith In religious terminology, the term hadith is used for 'the words of the Prophet', and later came to be used for 'his words, deeds and explanations'.... http://www.lastprophet.info/hadith-and-the-classification-of-hadith http://www.lastprophet.info/files/1147-hadith_and_the_classification_of_hadith--kucuk.jpg

Hadith and the Classification of Hadithİsmail Lütfi Çakan, PhD

In religious terminology, the term hadith is used for "the words of the Prophet", and later came to be used for "his words, deeds and explanations". Moreover, the words and deeds of the Companions and the following generation -with even a reference to maqtu (sayings of the following generation) and mauquf (sayings of the Companions) - are also called hadith. In this sense, there are also scholars who use the word khabar (report) instead of hadith, and the term asar for the words and deeds of Companions and the following generation.

In much broader sense, hadith can be defined as follows:

"Everything attributed to Prophet Muhammad (or the Companions or following generation), such as words, deeds, explanations, or characteristics of his creation and character."

The word Sunnah literally means "path and behavior". Although to start with the term sunnah was used for "the deeds of the Prophet", and hadith for "the words of the Prophet", Sunnah has become a term that is used for all direct explanations by the Prophet through words or deeds and his indirect explanations by tacit approval of events he heard or witnessed. According to scholars of usul al-fiqh, this is the definition of Sunnah. However, hadith scholars use the words hadith and Sunnah interchangeably.

COMPONENTS OF HADITH

A hadith is composed of two main parts that are quite different from each other: the sanad (chain of narrators) and the matn (text).

Sanad is the list of narrators - back to the Prophet (pbuh) - provided that one narrator transmits it from another and then to another. In a sense, this part is the chain of narrators. In fact, it is called the isnad, "the chain of narrators". Actually, the words sanad and isnad are used interchangeably now. Sanad is also known as tariq or wach.

The matn is "the main part of the hadith, the verbal part with which the sanad ends."

{mospagebreak title=Classification of Hadith}

CLASSIFICATIONS OF HADITH

I. According to acceptance or rejection

  • Maqbul (accepted)
  • Mardud (rejected)

II. According to the number of narrators

  • Mutawatir (consecutive)
  • Ahad (isolated)
  • Mashhur (famous)

III. According to the muntaha of the sanad (the reference of the hadith)

  • Qudsi (sacred)
  • Marfu’ (elevated)
  • Mauquf (stopped)
  • Maqtu’ (severed)

IV. According to soundness and judgment

  • Sahih (sound)
  • Hasan (good)
  • Da’if  (weak)

              a.Regarded weak because of a break in the sanad

              b.Regarded weak, because of the disparaged character of the narrator

V. According to contradiction

  • Muhkam (perfect)
  • Mukhtalif (disputed)
  •  

In much broader sense, hadith can be defined as follows:

"Everything attributed to Prophet Muhammad (or the Companions or following generation), such as words, deeds, explanations, or characteristics of his creation and character."

The word Sunnah literally means "path and behavior". Although to start with the term sunnah was used for "the deeds of the Prophet", and hadith for "the words of the Prophet", Sunnah has become a term that is used for all direct explanations by the Prophet through words or deeds and his indirect explanations by tacit approval of events he heard or witnessed. According to scholars of usul al-fiqh, this is the definition of Sunnah. However, hadith scholars use the words hadith and Sunnah interchangeably.

 

COMPONENTS OF HADITH

A hadith is composed of two main parts that are quite different each other: the sanad (chain of narrators) and the matn (text).

Sanad is the list of narrators - back to the Prophet (pbuh) - provided that one narrator transmits it another and then to another. In a sense, this part is the chain of narrators. In fact, it is called the isnad, "the chain of narrators". Actually, the words sanad and isnad are used interchangeably now. Sanad is also known as tariq or wach.

The matn is "the main part of the hadith, the verbal part with which the sanad ends."

 

CLASSIFICATIONS OF HADITH

I. According to acceptance or rejection

  • Maqbul (accepted)
  • Mardud (rejected)

II. According to the number of narrators

  • Mutawatir (consecutive)
  • Ahad (isolated)
  • Mashhur (famous)

III. According to the muntaha of the sanad (the reference of the hadith)

  • Qudsi (sacred)
  • Marfu’ (elevated)
  • Mauquf (stopped)
  • Maqtu’ (severed)

IV. According to soundness and judgment

  • Sahih (sound)
  • Hasan (good)
  • Da’if  (weak)

              a.Regarded weak because of a break in the sanad

              b.Regarded weak, because of the disparaged character of the narrator

V. According to contradiction

  • Muhkam (perfect)
  • Mukhtalif (disputed)


 

Compiled from Hadis Usûlü (Hadith Methodology) by İsmail Lütfi Çakan,PhD. İstanbul 2005.
 

Comments

 
SIRAJO UMAR
SIRAJO UMAR20.03.2012
Masha Allah! I HAVE NEVER COME ACROSS SUCH A WONDERFUL WORK LIKE THIS. MAY THE LORD OF THE ALAMIIIIN REWARD YOU AND INCREASE YOUR IMAN BIJAHI RASULULLAH. GOOD WORK
20.03.2012